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Title: Understanding the mechanisms and gene targets of histone chaperone NPM1 mediated transcriptional regulation
Authors: Kundu, Tapas Kumar
Senapati, Parijat
Keywords: Genetic transcription
Histone chaperone genes
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research
Citation: Senapati, Parijat. 2014, Understanding the mechanisms and gene targets of histone chaperone NPM1 mediated transcriptional regulation, Ph.D thesis, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bengaluru
Abstract: "The eukaryotic genome is systematically packaged into a topologically complex, fibrous superstructure known as chromatin in order to accommodate within the nucleus of the cell. The most basic repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome core particle (NCP) that is essentially made up of 146 bp of DNA wrapped in roughly two super helical turns around an octamer of core histones (Luger et al., 1997). The entire genomic DNA thus packaged into repeating units of the nucleosome resembles a “beads on a string” structure (Baer and Kornberg, 1979; Klug et al., 1980; Olins and Olins, 1979). Further higher order packaging of NCPs into fibers is a multi-step phenomenon (Figure 1.1) and requires several proteins such as linker histone H1 and histone tails which interacts with NCPs and organizes the linker DNA. Many additional levels of folding involving linker histone H1 (Thomas and Stott, 2012), non-histone proteins such as HMGs, HP1, PC4 (Das et al., 2010a; Das et al., 2006), MENT (Luger and Hansen, 2005), DEK (Kappes et al., 2011; Waldmann et al., 2002), PARP-1 (Galande and Kohwi-Shigematsu, 2000), CTCF and non-coding RNAs facilitate the accommodation of the vast expanse of eukaryotic genome into the limited confines of the nucleus (Luger, 2006) (Figure 1.1). However, in spite of such higher degree of compaction, the eukaryotic chromatin is highly dynamic in nature with diversity being generated through local chromatin composition (presence of histone variants) (Henikoff et al., 2004), covalent modifications of histones (Strahl and Allis, 2000), methylation status of the DNA, histone chaperones and the ATP dependent chromatin remodeling which ensures the progress of various DNA-templated nuclear processes such as replication, transcription and repair (Becker and Workman, 2013)."
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