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Title: Stalagmite growth perturbations from the Kumaun Himalaya as potential earthquake recorders
Authors: Rajendran, C. P.
Sanwal, Jaishri
Morell, Kristin D.
Sandiford, Mike
Kotlia, B. S.
Hellstrom, John
Rajendran, Kusala
Keywords: Geochemistry & Geophysics
Earthquake recurrence
Central Indian Himalaya
Seismic gap
Summer Monsoon Precipitation
Speleothem Record
Late Pleistocene
Lesser Himalaya
Karst Sediments
Indian Himalaya
Central Texas
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Springer
Citation: Rajendran, C. P.; Sanwal, J.; Morell, K. D.; Sandiford, M.; Kotlia, B. S.; Hellstrom, J.; Rajendran, K., Stalagmite growth perturbations from the Kumaun Himalaya as potential earthquake recorders. Journal of Seismology 2016, 20 (2), 579-594
Journal of Seismology
Abstract: The central part of the Himalaya (Kumaun and Garhwal Provinces of India) is noted for its prolonged seismic quiescence, and therefore, developing a longer-term time series of past earthquakes to understand their recurrence pattern in this segment assumes importance. In addition to direct observations of offsets in stratigraphic exposures or other proxies like paleoliquefaction, deformation preserved within stalagmites (speleothems) in karst system can be analyzed to obtain continuous millennial scale time series of earthquakes. The Central Indian Himalaya hosts natural caves between major active thrusts forming potential storehouses for paleoseismological records. Here, we present results from the limestone caves in the Kumaun Himalaya and discuss the implications of growth perturbations identified in the stalagmites as possible earthquake recorders. This article focuses on three stalagmites from the Dharamjali Cave located in the eastern Kumaun Himalaya, although two other caves, one of them located in the foothills, were also examined for their suitability. The growth anomalies in stalagmites include abrupt tilting or rotation of growth axes, growth termination, and breakage followed by regrowth. The U-Th age data from three specimens allow us to constrain the intervals of growth anomalies, and these were dated at 4273 +/- 410 years BP (2673-1853 BC), 2782 +/- 79 years BP (851-693 BC), 2498 +/- 117 years BP (605-371 BC), 1503 +/- 245 years BP (262-752 AD), 1346 +/- 101 years BP (563-765 AD), and 687 +/- 147 years BP (1176-1470 AD). The dates may correspond to the timings of major/great earthquakes in the region and the youngest event (1176-1470 AD) shows chronological correspondence with either one of the great medieval earthquakes (1050-1250 and 1259-1433 AD) evident from trench excavations across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust.
Description: Restricted Access
ISSN: 1383-4649
Appears in Collections:Research Articles (Rajendran, C. P.)

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